Tag: Flexible Mechanisms

Cancun Building Blocks - Oct 2010

THE POST-COPENHAGEN ROAD

A fair, ambitious and binding deal is needed more urgently than ever. Climate science is more compelling by the day. Impacts are coming harder and faster. Disastrous flooding in Pakistan, heat waves and forest fires in Russia and hottest recorded temperatures around the globe, amongst other devastating climate-related events, all point to the need for urgent action. Levels of warming once thought to be safe, may well not be, 1.5˚C is the new 2˚C

Negotiations Post-Copenhagen
Copenhagen was a watershed moment for public interest and support for climate action – and people have not lost interest. More people in more countries than ever have put their governments on notice that they expect a fair,
ambitious and binding global deal to be agreed urgently. Trust-building is essential after the disappointment of Copenhagen. Developed country leadership must be at the core of trust building efforts. Countries must show
their commitment to the UNFCCC process by driving it forward with political will and flexible positions, rather than endless rounds of repetitive negotiations. Many countries are troublingly pessimistic for Cancun, and are working to lower expectations. While others, including countries most vulnerable to climate change, maintain high expectations.

Challenges ahead of Cancun
There are many challenges to getting a full fair, ambitious and binding deal at Cancun, including:

  • Lack of a shared vision for the ultimate objective of the agreement, and the equitable allocation of the remaining carbon budget and emissions reduction/limitation commitments;
  • Sharp divisions on the legal form of an eventual outcome;
  • Failure of the US Senate to pass comprehensive legislation this year; and
  • Current economic difficulties facing many countries, which make it difficult to mobilize the substantial commitments to long-term climate finance needed as part of any ambitious agreement. 

Positive moves afoot
However, more and more countries, both developing and developed, are stepping up their efforts to pursue low-carbon development and adaptation, despite the absence of an international agreement. This can be seen in a variety of ways:

  • Investments in renewable energies have continued their exponential growth, increasing to 19% of global energy consumed;
  • Progressive countries are working to move the negotiations forward;
  • There is a growing perception that low-carbon and climate-resilient development is the only option to sustainably ensure the right to development and progress in poverty reduction. 

So, what does a pathway forward look like?

Firstly we must learn the lessons of Copenhagen. The “nothing’s agreed until everything’s agreed” dynamic from Copenhagen could mean that nothing would be agreed in Cancun. An agreement in Cancun should instead be a balanced and significant step toward reaching a full fair, ambitious & binding deal at COP 17 in South Africa. This will require parties to work together in good faith to create sufficient gains at Cancun, and a clear roadmap to South Africa. This paper outlines how that could be achieved. 

CAN Letter to Chancellor Merkel and the G7 re: April Meetings, April 9, 2015

Dear Madam Chancellor,

2015 will be a decisive year for setting the course for climate policy. Germany is addressing the implementation of its Climate Action Program 2020 and the design of the power market while the EU is discussing how to put its emissions trading system on track again. At the international level a new global climate agreement is to be concluded at COP 21 in Paris in December. In view of this we very much welcome that “climate action” has been chosen as a key topic for the G7 agenda. Climate Action Network International, the broadest civil society coalition aiming at overcoming the climate crisis, kindly asks you to consider the following proposals for your G7 presidency.

Many countries have already started transformational processes at the national level, including increasingly basing their economic development on renewables and improved energy efficiency instead of fossil energy sources. Since renewable energies have undergone significant price declines in recent years, they have become competitive in many regions of the world thereby creating new development opportunities and expanding access to energy. These developments have to be strengthened and expanded by providing favorable political framework conditions.

In this context, the international climate negotiations play an important role. Decisions made within the context of the UNFCCC attract worldwide attention. They provide long term orientation and can give clear signals to investors that low carbon development is not only inevitable but also a real economic opportunity. During your last G8 presidency you were instrumental in defining the “2°C limit”. This has been a groundbreaking first step. We call on you to consolidate the achievements of the past during your current G7 presidency:

  1. Based on the L’Aquila declaration from 2009, and taking into account the G7’s particular responsibility, the G7 should make the next step and commit to a more specific and actionable long-term goal. In accordance with the high probability scenario of IPCC to limit global warming to two degrees Celsius or even 1.5 degrees Celsius it is necessary to phase out fossil fuel use and to phase in 100% renewable energies by 2050, providing sustainable energy access for all people.
  2. This long-term goal should be backed up with a substantial increase in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, both in the run up to 2020 as in the post-2020 period for which countries are currently making pledges that seem insufficient to avoid dangerous climate change. For example, G7 countries should commit to deadlines for phasing-out domestic use of coal. 
  3. The G7 should confirm its commitment to the goal of mobilizing $ 100 billion in climate finance by 2020, as enshrined in the Copenhagen Accord. This should be backed with a corresponding pathway including increasing annual public contributions until 2020.
  4. G7 should commit to a global goal of ensuring climate resilience to all people by developing, implementing and financing developing country National Climate Adaptation Plans and respective robust and effective national and international frameworks to reduce and manage climate risks and losses that go beyond adaptation capacities. We welcome that Germany plans to enhance the G7 commitment to strengthen climate risk management in vulnerable developing countries. We ask you to ensure a strong focus on the needs of particularly vulnerable people and communities, espeically women. 

However, in CAN’s opinion, initiatives taken by G7 states should not only be limited to the UNFCCC process. While the above steps could in particular support progress in the UNFCCC process, the G7 should take complementary initiatives aiming at fostering trust building between developed and developing countries by launching projects and initiatives to facilitate the transformation process towards a low carbon and climate resilient future. Therefore, we call for your support to:

  1. Terminate the international financing of coal and lignite fired power plants including related infrastructure through the G7's development banks, other public banks and export credit agencies.
  2. Initiate new or significantly strengthen existing initiatives and financing instruments to promote capacity building, technology transfer and investments in renewable energies and energy efficiency in developing countries with ambitious climate and energy strategies.
  3. Mobilize new and innovative sources of climate finance including a Financial Transaction Tax (FTT).
  4. Accelerate efforts to end subsidies for fossil fuels by 2015 in the G7 countries, which have all signed the respective G20 agreement in 2009.

​Madame Chancellor, we are looking forward to further exchange views on these issues and remain at your disposal.

Kind regards, 

Wael Hmaidan

 

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Climate protection needs human rights

As negotiators discuss how and where to include human rights references in the negotiating text, Panama has set a real world example. ECO warmly welcomes the decision by Panama’s environmental authority to temporarily suspend the Barro Blanco hydroelectric dam over noncompliance with its environmental impact assessment, including consultation requirements.

For the past several years, the indigenous Ngöbe communities have stood in firm opposition to the Barro Blanco dam, which would flood the homes of many indigenous families living at the Tabasará River. Where does the UNFCCC come in? Well, despite strong community resistance, the project developer applied for registration under the Clean Development Mechanism. When alerted about the danger indigenous families were facing, the CDM Board decided that the CDM’s consultation standards had been met and approved the project. There’s no question we need to fight climate change. But there’s no justification for violating human rights in the process.

Panama’s suspension of the project following the CDM Board’s decision to approve the Barro Blanco project is a game changer. Credible international climate policy needs to be consistent with existing obligations, and those obligations must be recognised and operationalised in the 2015 agreement. Dear delegates: don’t let projects like Barro Blanco undermine the integrity of international climate policy – our future climate deal should respect, protect, promote and help realise human rights.

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CAN Intervention in the COP20 SBSTA Closing Plenary, 6 December 2014

Thank you Mr. Chair,

My name is Harshita Bisht and I am speaking on behalf of Climate Action Network.

There is an essential piece of the Technology transfer, Development and Diffusion puzzle missing in the negotiations and that is the economic, social and environmental assessment of mitigation and adaptation technologies. Our goal is to maximize the flow of technologies based, on the principle of CBDR, from developed to developing countries. But for this to be productive we need to ensure that transferred technologies will not have unforeseen impacts.

Technologies that carry the risk of a global and potentially devastating impact should not be part of any decision or agreement.  We call on all parties to demand that technology assessment be included within the mandate of the Technology Mechanism.

Regarding the negotiations on the Framework for Various Approaches, we welcome the cautioned approach not to prejudge progress towards a future climate treaty. However, this must not come at the expense of avoiding discussions on the nuts and bolts of an accounting framework, which we need to avoid that climate commitments are undermined. We call on Parties to start work on this important element in the ADP discussions as soon as possible.

Thank you Mr. Chair.

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Switzerland - Fossil of the Day - December 3, 2014 - COP 20 Lima (Full)

 

 

Switzerland earns today’s first place Fossil of the Day for being a big bully. As anyone who listens to civil society or a climate scientist will know, we have to do much more if we want to keep temperature rise to within the internationally agreed threshold of 2degreesC. Predictable public climate finance to help developing countries to scale up their climate actions will help grease the ambition wheel. Switzerland, in an intervention today, not only opposed any legally binding commitments of finance, but also threatened developing countries that any demands for such would jeopardize the outcome here in Lima. Other developed countries, EU and the US came close to earning a fossil too as they didn't exactly paint themselves in glory either when they also strongly rejected commitments on finance.

Brazil stated in the Framework for Various Approaches Contact Group that “there is no double counting in the CDM.” As numerous scientists have documented, double-counting of emissions is a serious problem with the Clean Development Mechanism. New, robust accounting rules that stamp out such practices are seriously needed to ensure the integrity of our efforts to combat climate change. This statement undermines climate action and earns Brazil a second place Fossil.

AOSIS received the Ray of the Day award today for being the first group to directly support during this COP the complete phase out of carbon pollution by 2050. What makes this statement even more powerful is that other countries added their voices to that of AOSIS, specifically AILAC and Norway. Achieving this phase out of fossil fuel emissions and a just transition to 100% RE by mid century is our only hope to stay below the 2 degrees threshold. Countries also need to ensure that there is enough financial and technological support to have developing countries achieve transition. Shifting investments and subsidies from fossil fuels to renewable energy is a good start.

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CAN Intervention in the COP20 CMP Plenary on Agenda Item 8, 3 December, 2014

 

Thank you Mr. President,

I am Juliane Voight speaking on behalf of the Climate Action Network.

The Kyoto Protocol has many elements that we find important precedents for the 2015 Agreement.

  • Its framework allows long term viability, having commitments that can be updated at the same time in every commitment period
  • It has a robust MRV and common accounting system allowing for comparability of effort and clarity of commitment and effort
  • It defines common accounting rules and the basket of gases and common global warming potentials for them, that are counted towards the economy-wide reduction commitment, increasing comparability and ensuring ‘difficult’ emissions are not excluded
  • It has a compliance system
  • It has economy-wide, quantified absolute emissions reduction commitments for developed countries

The KP set the benchmark on these types of commitments for developed countries. And there should be more ambition, and no backsliding, in the 2015 Agreement.

The KP established market mechanisms, which have left lots of challenges in their wake. These mechanisms need to be reformed to go beyond offsetting to provide net mitigation at the global level, IF any use of market-based mechanisms is assumed at all in the post-2020 regime.

We call upon all Parties that have not yet done so, to ratify the amendments for the second commitment of the Kyoto Protocol.

Thank you Mr. President.

Bully Boys from Switzerland Win Fossil Over Finance Threat

 

Switzerland earns today’s first place Fossil of the Day for being a big bully. As anyone who listens to civil society or a climate scientist will know, we have to do much more if we want to keep temperature rise to within the internationally agreed threshold of 2degreesC. Predictable public climate finance to help developing countries to scale up their climate actions will help grease the ambition wheel. Switzerland, in an intervention today, not only opposed any legally binding commitments of finance, but also threatened developing countries that any demands for such would jeopardize the outcome here in Lima. Other developed countries, EU and the US came close to earning a fossil too as they didn't exactly paint themselves in glory either when they also strongly rejected commitments on finance.

Brazil stated in the Framework for Various Approaches Contact Group that “there is no double counting in the CDM.” As numerous scientists have documented, double-counting of emissions is a serious problem with the Clean Development Mechanism. New, robust accounting rules that stamp out such practices are seriously needed to ensure the integrity of our efforts to combat climate change. This statement undermines climate action and earns Brazil a second place Fossil.

AOSIS received the Ray of the Day award today for being the first group to directly support during this COP the complete phase out of carbon pollution by 2050. What makes this statement even more powerful is that other countries added their voices to that of AOSIS, specifically AILAC and Norway. Achieving this phase out of fossil fuel emissions and a just transition to 100% RE by mid century is our only hope to stay below the 2 degrees threshold. Countries also need to ensure that there is enough financial and technological support to have developing countries achieve transition. Shifting investments and subsidies from fossil fuels to renewable energy is a good start.

About CAN: The Climate Action Network (CAN) is a worldwide network of over 900 Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in more than 100 working to promote government and individual action to limit human0induced climate change to ecologically sustainable levels. www.climatenetwork.org 

About the fossils: The Fossil of the Day awards were first presented at the climate talks in 1999, in Bonn, initiated by the German NGO Forum. During United Nations climate change negotiations (www.unfccc.int), members of the Climate Action Network (CAN), vote for countries judged to have done their 'best' to block progress in the negotiations in the last days of talks.

About the rays: CAN, gives out the 'Ray of The Day' award to the countries who are a ray of hope over the past days of negotiations at the UN climate change conference. This ‘Ray of Solidarity’ is in the same spirit.

 

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CAN Intervention in the COP20 SBSTA Opening Plenary, 1 December 2014-not delivered

Thank you Chair,

I am Vositha Wijenayake speaking on behalf of Climate Action Network.

As Parties will deliberate on the Framework for Various Approaches (FVA) we would like to stress the following:

An FVA must be seen in the context of the 2015 agreement and must not prejudge the work of the ADP on the 2015 agreement.

Before establishing an FVA, experience with existing carbon markets needs to be taken into account. The vast majority of CDM and JI offsets come from non-additional projects. Experiences with JI show that even with sound accounting rules, low quality offsets can lead to higher global emissions than if commitments were met purely domestically.  

The use of market mechanisms under a new agreement must under no circumstances undermine mitigation targets and it must not threaten sustainable development and human rights.

Therefore, only countries with ambitious domestic mitigation commitments, in line with the 2C degree target and equity principles should be eligible to participate in international markets. Moreover, the use of internationally traded units has to be supplemental to domestic mitigation efforts.

All internationally traded offsets have to meet environmental integrity standards as set out in Durban to ensure that traded units are real, permanent, additional and verified.

Robust and comprehensive accounting rules must be established to avoid double counting and to enable achieving net atmospheric benefits.

Thank you.

 

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CAN Position on Joint Implementation, November 30, 2014

A decision to initiate the first review of the Joint Implementation (JI) guidelines was taken by Decision 4/CMP.6. At CMP.8 in Doha, Parties agreed on key attributes that would characterize the future operation of JI and requested the SBI to draft revised JI Modalities and Procedures (M&P). These new M&P will replace the existing JI Guidelines which were adopted by Decision 9/CMP.1. The draft text “Review of the joint implementation guidelines. Draft conclusions proposed by the Chair” will provide the basis for negotiations at SBI 41 in December 2014 in Lima. In our view, the draft text contains several critical points that need to be addressed before it should be adopted, in particular:

  • International oversight should be improved
  • Existing projects should be reassessed and then operate under new rules
  • Crediting periods should end in 2020
  • Retroactive crediting should be stopped
  • Stakeholder consultations should be strengthened
  • Atmospheric benefits should be achieving
  • No ERUs should be issued during the interim period

For more detailed information on how these recommendations can be implemented, please see below. 

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CAN Annual Policy Document: "Lima: Raising the Curtain on Paris", Executive Summary, Russian

В сентябре на улицах Нью-Йорка вершилась история: более 400 тысяч человек вышли, чтобы сказать миру: «Нам нужны действия в защиту климата – сейчас!» И КС20 в Лиме должна стать поворотным моментом в переговорах: политическая воля правительств должна соответствовать этому призыву людей по всему миру быть амбициозными в борьбе против изменения климата.

Создание Дурбанской платформы активизации действий (ADP) стало результатом КС17, и результатом ее работы должно стать новое глобальное климатическое соглашение, которое планируется утвердить в рамках КС21 в Париже в 2015 году.

20-я Конференция Сторон в Лиме – это ключ к следующему этапу переговоров, так как именно на этой встрече должны быть определены параметры нового соглашения. В Лиме делегаты должны руководствоваться последними научными данными, представленными МГЭИК, и общественным импульсом, требующим активных действий, и направить политическую волю на то, чтобы решения по форме, содержанию и амбициозности нового соглашения были приняты.

КС в Лиме должна заложить основы для результата в Париже, и Climate Action Network представляет свой взгляд на то, какие задачи должны быть решены делегатами КС20, чтобы заложить качественный фундамент для будущего соглашения на период после 2015 года.

 

ОСНОВНЫЕ РЕШЕНИЯ, КОТОРЫЕ ДОЛЖНЫ БЫТЬ ПРИНЯТЫ КС20

УВЕЛИЧЕНИЕ АМБИЦИЙ ПО СМЯГЧЕНИЮ ПОСЛЕДСТВИЙ ИЗМЕНЕНИЯ КЛИМАТА И ФИНАНСАМ НА ПЕРИОД ДО 2020 ГОДА

  • КС20 должна призвать все страны пересмотреть обязательства и планы по снижению выбросов парниковых газов на период до 2020 года
  • Дурбанская платформа должна получить мандат на разработку 2-летнего рабочего плана на период 2015-2017 гг., который будет включать информацию о том, какие конкретные шаги будут предприняты для ликвидации разрыва между существующими и необходимыми обязательствами и как дискуссии будут отражены в реальных действиях.
  • Роль технических экспертных встреч (TEMs) должна быть усилена: мандат должен фокусироваться не только на действиях с высоким потенциалом снижения воздействия на климат, но также и на конкретных средствах по реализации этих действий
  • Необходимо сохранить взносы, уже внесенные в Зеленый климатический фонд, а также оценить адекватность существующих целей и обсудить будущие целевые показатели по ежегодным взносам, которые должны быть достигнуты, к примеру, к 2020 году.
  • Необходимо принято решение о том, что развитые страны и другие страны, которые в состоянии сделать это, должны постоянно увеличивать ежегодные взносы в Зеленый климатический фонд, чтобы достичь заявленных целевых показателей по объему финансирования
  • Министры, принимающие участие в КС20, должны принять решение о совместной разработке дорожной карты по климатическому финансированию до 2020 года, которая должна включать следующую информацию: а) расширение масштабов государственного финансирования до 2020 года, (б) виды и инструменты финансирования, (с) каналы, источники и отраслевое распределение между адаптацией и смягчением последствий, для того чтобы обеспечить предсказуемые и распределенные во времени объемы финансирования и промежуточные показатели.
  • Министрам также следует задуматься о более устойчивых источниках финансирования для адаптационного фонда. Развитые страны должны использовать КС в Лиме для того, чтобы озвучить планы о внесении в адаптационный фонд как минимум 80 миллионов долларов.
  • Группе Структурированного экспертного диалога (SED) следует обсудить синтезирующий доклад МГЭИК в свете прогресса в достижении конечной цели Конвенции.
  • Совместная контактная группа (JCG) по пересмотру обязательств, обнародованных в 2013-2015 гг., должна заключить, что с учетом научных данных существующие обязательства на период до 2020 года являются неадекватными и должны быть пересмотрены.

 

ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ РАМОК И СОДЕРЖАНИЯ СОГЛАШЕНИЯ НА ПЕРИОД ПОСЛЕ 2015 ГОДА

Текст решения по Предполагаемым национально определяемым вкладам (INDC) должен включать:

  • Описание процесса оценки адекватности и справедливости предложенных INDCs в рамках предварительного анализа, который будет осуществлен до КС21.
  • Данные о финансовых обязательствах в рамках INDCs.
  • Информация о планах по адаптации (может быть добровольным показателем, хотя следует поощрять страны представлять свой предполагаемый вклад в адаптацию). Уязвимым развивающимся странам должна быть оказана поддержка в подготовке к разработке их вкладов.
  • Повышение роли гражданского общества, в том числе местных сообществ и других заинтересованных сторон, должно поощряться – гражданское общество должно быть включено в процесс разработки INDC, и странам должно быть рекомендовано проведение национальных консультаций при подготовке INDC.
  • Условие для всех стран о необходимости предоставления информации о том, почему страна считает свой вклад адекватным и справедливым: в связи с этим всем странам будет необходимо включить анализ на соответствие индикаторам справедливости (адекватность, ответственность, соответствие возможностям страны, необходимость в развитии, необходимость адаптации).

Решение по элементам соглашения на период после 2015 года должно включать: 

  • Долгосрочные глобальные цели по поэтапному отказу от всех выбросов парниковых газов в результате использования ископаемого топлива и поэтапной замене на 100% использование возобновляемой энергетики в целях обеспечения устойчивого доступа к энергоресурсам для всех – это необходимо сделать как можно раньше, но не позднее 2050-го года.
  • Коллективное обязательство по ликвидации государственной поддержки (финансовой и политической) индустрии ископаемых видов топлива и оказании поддержки действиям, направленным на адаптацию к изменению климата и развитие всеобщего и справедливого доступа к устойчивой энергетике.
  • Создание глобальных целей по государственному финансированию.
  • Соглашение о необходимости рассмотреть и создать новые инструменты и каналы для мобилизации дополнительного международного климатического финансирования из новых источников.
  • Соглашение о создании надежной и честной системы измерения, отчетности и верификации (MRV) для климатического финансирования.
  • Решение о необходимости амбициозной глобальной цели по адаптации в рамках соглашения на период после 2015 года. КС также следует поощрить и поддержать национальное планирование и деятельность в сфере адаптации в развивающихся странах.
  • Принятие  сильного 2-летнего плана работы по механизму ущерба и потерь (Loss and Damage).
  • Решение о необходимости создания Координирующего органа по наращиванию потенциала (CBCB) на КС21 в Париже.
  • Решение о повышении роли гражданского общества в рамках всех механизмов, созданных Конвенцией и в реализации соглашений. Местное гражданское общество и другие заинтересованные стороны должны иметь возможность активно участвовать в процессах по оценке соответствия и MRV в рамках нового соглашения.
  • Технологии: Консультативный Совет Центра и сети по климатическим технологиям должен принять во внимание необходимость следующих мероприятий: предоставление консультаций, поддержка и укрепление потенциала для развивающихся стран, проведение оценок новых и новейших технологий.

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