Tag: China

CAN Annual Policy Document: "Lima: Raising the Curtain on Paris", Executive Summary, Chinese

 

今年9月份,当来自各行各业的40多万民众走上纽约街头告诉全世界“我们需要更多的行动来应对气候变化”时,历史已经被创造。即将在利马举行的第二十次缔约方大会(COP20)(以下简称“利马会议”)必须成为各国应对气候变化政治意愿的一个转折点,以此呼应全世界民众的期盼。

在第十七次缔约方大会上,各国就增强行动的德班平台达成一致,在此平台上的谈判将在2015年举行的巴黎第二十一次缔约方大会(COP21)达到高潮,届时各国将就下一步如何制定全球应对气候变化协议的达成共识。

利马会议将为下一步的谈判发挥关键性作用,因为它将确定2015年全球气候协议的要素。鉴于民众不断高涨的呼声和政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)的最新科学评估,利马会议需要调动各国政治意愿就2015年协议的框架、组成、以及目标等做出决定。

因为利马会议将为巴黎谈判的成果奠定基础,气候行动网络(Climate Action Network)就本次会议需要解决的问题提出看法,以此为2015年的协议打下正确的基础。

利马会议需要做出的关键决定

对于增强2020年前减排和资金的力度

  • 利马会议应该要求各国修改2020年前的减排承诺和行动
  • 利马会议应授权德班平台制定一个2年的工作计划(2015-2017),该计划安排详细的步骤以确保消除排放鸿沟的工作得以落实,相关讨论能够转化成行动。
  • 利马会议应该增加新的授权,不仅关注高潜力的减缓行动,更应该关注实现这些行动的手段和方法。
  • 利马会议应该收集各国已经做出的贡献,评估已有的承诺,并就实现绿色气候基金年度注资讨论出一个未来的目标,比如到2020年。
  • 利马会议应做出决定,要求发达国家和其他应该做的国家继续增加对绿色气候基金的年度注资,以确保其达到预定的筹资目标。
  • 各国部长应该在利马就起草实现2020年全球气候融资的路线图达成一致,其中包括(a)到2020年增加公共资金规模,(b)资金筹措的类型和工具,(c)渠道、来源及在减缓和适应之间的部门分配比例,以此确保有可预期的、不断扩大的资金,和实现路径。
  • 部长们在利马期间应该就适应基金提出更具持续性的资金来源。发达国家应该在利马为适应基金承诺至少8000万美元的注资。
  • 组织化的专家对话应就IPCC综合报告开展讨论,来审视为实现公约最终目标所取得的进展。
  • 2013-2015评审工作的联合联络小组应该得出这样的结论:基于科学证据,各国承诺的2020年前的行动力度是不够的,需要重新修订。

 

定义2015年协议的范围和内容

“预期国家自主贡献(INDC)”的决议文本应该包括:

  • 在巴黎气候大会(COP21)之前建立一个评估进程,就各国提出的INDCs方案以事前评估的方式对其力度和公平性问题进行评估。
  • INDCs框架内的资金问题
  • INDCs框架内的适应问题应该基于自愿,尽管应该鼓励各国提出适应方面的贡献。具有脆弱性的发展中国家在提出他们的适应贡献方面应该在得到支持。
  • 应该赋予公民社会组织更大的作用,应该鼓励并赋权地方公民社会组织以及其他利益相关方协助准备其所在国的INDC,应该鼓励各国在准备其INDCs过程中组织国家层面的相关咨询。
  • 规定各国解释其提交的贡献方案既体现了应有的力度,也体现了公平性。鉴于此,各国都应该提交关于体现公平性的指标信息(如力度、责任、能力、发展需求、适应需求等)。

 

关于2015年协议要素的决议文本应该包括:

  • 一个长期性的全球目标:淘汰所有化石能源排放和实现人人长期共享的100%可再生能源未来,这个目标应该尽早实现,但最晚不迟于2050年。
  • 集体承诺将对化石能源的公共资金与政策支持转移到提高气候抵抗力和提供统一、公平的可持续能源供给方面。
  • 确立全球公共资金目标。
  • 同意考虑和确立/使用新的工具和渠道来调集额外的国际气候资金。
  • 同意建立稳固诚信的关于气候资金的测量、报告、和核查体系。
  • 2015年协议内设立具有雄心的全球适应目标的决议。缔约方大会应该鼓励和促进发展中国家制定和实施国家适应方案。
  • 缔约方大会应该采取一个强有力的2年工作方案来建立“灾害与损失”的机制。
  • 在巴黎气候大会上要决定建立一个能力建设协调机构。
  • 增强公约下所有机制、以及相关协议执行过程中公民社会组织的作用。地方公民社会组织和其他利益相关方应该能够积极参与到新协议的执行和“三可”(MRV)过程中。
  • 技术-缔约方大会应该推荐气候技术中心和网络咨询委员会考虑如下活动:提供建议、支持并向发展中国家提供能力建设、对新型技术进行评估。

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China and the US offer momentum to climate action ahead of COP20

Wednesday, November 12, 2014: The tabling of national climate action commitments by the world's two major polluters, the US and China, adds welcome momentum to what will amount to our first steps in unison down a low carbon development pathway that brings us closer to a phase out fossil fuel pollution in favour of 100% renewable energy.  

Other countries should see these "game-changing" announcements by the US and China as a strong signal of commitment to the collective international effort to act on climate change as they prepare their own national plans. 

The US and China's announcement comes hot on the heels of the EU's 2030 climate target which means that countries representing more than half the world's GDP have outlined their first offers which will form the foundation of a comprehensive, global agreement to limit climate change due in Paris in December 2015. 

Of course, to take advantage of all the benefits that climate action can deliver, such as better public health, more jobs and stronger economies, China and the US can both do more. To more quickly speed up the on-going transition to renewable energy,  China can, for example, work to peak its coal consumption by 2020, while the US can put money on the table at the Green Climate Fund pledging conference next week, allowing developing countries to boost their own action. Such steps will further build confidence in national capitals as they build their own climate action plans. 

In addition, with the international community still working out the parameters of the Paris agreement, the US and China - along with all countries -  need to factor in the need to review the collective pledges once they are in order that they can be assessed for fairness and scaled up to meet the agreed threshold beyond which the climate will spin out of control. 

Climate Action Network (CAN) is a global network of over 900 NGOs working to promote government and individual action to limit human-induced climate change to ecologically sustainable levels. More at: www.climatenetwork.org

Contact:  Ria Voorhaar, CAN International, email: rvoorhaar@climatenetwork.org, phone: +49 157 3173 5568

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An open letter to China’s Chief Speech Writer

Dear Chief Speech Writer,

Being a speech writer for one of the busiest people on earth is stressful, isn’t it? Don’t worry, ECO is here to help with some advice that you may want to consider in your draft speech for the Chinese leader in the upcoming Climate Summit.

ECO recommends having “coal” as the key word in your writing. We’re aware of the recent regional coal caps introduced in China, intended to tackle air pollution. Your country is making impressive progress in deviating from the coal dependent path. Why not write about it? Even better, how about expanding existing coal caps to the entire country and announcing this decision in the speech? Not only would this help alleviate air pollution in China, it would also bring down emissions significantly. You recently wrote your Premier an impressive speech to declare “war on pollution”. We’re pacifists at ECO, but could definitely get behind those efforts.

You should consider reaffirming the intention to communicate China’s “intended nationally determined contributions” (INDC) for the 2015 climate deal by the first quarter of next year. Speech elements that touch on the scope and ambition level of the Chinese offer will certainly be welcomed.

Our final piece of advice is to elaborate on some of the upcoming climate policies. ECO encourages you to write about the climate change legislation that is currently in the pipeline. Some clarity on how the ETS will be developed after 2015 will also be helpful. And don’t forget to mention peaking – something ECO cares about dearly. Please do not let ECO down by saying China’s emissions would peak by as late as 2030. In light of the latest IPCC reports, another 15 years of emissions growth would be a climate disaster!

So good luck with drafting! No pressure, but you are compiling a speech that everyone around the world will be listening to carefully. Make sure you adopt elements from ECO’s suggestions. That will for sure earn your boss applause for his climate moment.

Yours,

ECO

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Fresh air for fresh brains

ECO hopes that a fresh breeze of air in Bonn will give the Chinese delegation a break from Beijing’s filthy air, and perhaps a fresh perspective on the negotiations.

Last year, 92% of China’s cities failed to meet national air quality standards. The government has since mandated provinces to curb coal consumption, the biggest source of air pollution, in particular of PM2.5 (particles smaller than 2.5 mm in diameter). A number of provinces have put forward specific coal control measures and some have even pledged to reduce absolute consumption by 2017. The aggregate of these provincial measures will reduce the country’s coal consumption by 655 million tonnes from a business as usual scenario by 2020.

ECO knows that there are significant co-benefits between addressing air pollution and mitigating greenhouse gases emissions. Over the past decade, China’s coal burning has accounted for half of the world’s CO2 emission growth. Slashing coal power generation will not only be good for the Chinese people, but also for the global community.

Provincial cuts to coal-based power generation will translate to roughly 1,300 million tonnes of emissions reductions, equivalent to the combined total annual emissions of Australia and Canada. If China delivers on these plans with a full implementation and by expanding its coal caps to broader regions, then its emissions pathway will be almost in line with the IEA’s 2°C scenario. Other countries must do their fair share to if China is to have confidence moving forward.

ECO thinks that the Minister’s further clarification on China’s proposed submission by March 2015 is a timely step in the right direction that needs to be built upon. China should also communicate its domestic successes here in Bonn to help build momentum in the international climate negotiations. More transparency will help build trust, enhance collective ambition, and might just allow everyone to breathe more easily.

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Dear Japan:

Hello and welcome, Mr. Japanese Minister!

We would like to introduce ourselves, as we did not have a chance to meet you here in Warsaw.

We have met the Japanese ministers at every Conference of the Parties since COP 2, held in 1996. We are wondering why the honorable Minister of Japan did not have the time to meet us in civil society this time around, and explain Japan's new ‘ambitious’ emissions target of 3.1% above 1990 levels by 2020 .

We are looking forward to meeting you in Lima, and hoping by then you can present a truly ambitious target of which you could be proud!

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Plans to Axe Warsaw’s Only Fair Share Mention Gets Fossil for Five Countries, while Australia’s Schoolboy Antics Get a Fifth Gong


Credit: David Tong, Adopt A Negotiator

The first place fossil goes to India, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Malaysia, and China for proposing to delete the only reference to equity in the ADP text!  (And for the wonks, we mean paragraph 9 in the ADP text).  Equity is key to the 2015 agreement and Parties must leave Warsaw with a clear understanding of how the ex ante review will be conducted. This includes – at a minimum - details on submissions, expert workshops, and the development of a technical paper on a basket of indicators covering: adequacy, historical responsibility, capability, and development and adaptation need).  Details that are really hard to achieve if you just delete the whole paragraph.  We were shocked that with all the discussions here and in Bonn, equity did not yield more than a passing reference in the first version of the ADP text.  The next iteration must expand and not ‘streamline’ references to equity.  To these members of the Like-Minded Group, we urge you to engage in the development of an ex ante review, rather than hovering over the delete button.

The second place in today’s fossil goes to Australia, who along with some other developed countries is impeding progress towards setting up an international mechanism on loss and damage here in Warsaw, as proposed by G77 and China. Trying to keep out key text elements proposed by more than 130 developing countries (such as on non-economic losses and permanent losses), delaying negotiation progress through procedural manoeuvres, and lacking a clear commitment to strong support provisions in the decision text is highly concerning.  Australia is the leader of those lacking constructive spirit.
 
We call on the other developed countries to work seriously for the needs of the most vulnerable countries and help in establishing an effective international mechanism on loss and damage here in Warsaw.

AUSTRALIAN CARBON PRICE REPEAL DRAGS COUNTRY BACK TO THE FOSSIL ERA


Photo Credit: David Tong, Adopt A Negotiator

It has been millennia since the rumble of dinosaurs has been heard, but now in 2013 at COP19 to the UNFCCC we find ourselves among prehistoric fossils once more. 

Overnight, the Australian government tabled legislation to repeal effective climate policy. Instead they hope to bring in an almost Orwellian-named “direct action plan” which they claim will meet their paltry 5% reduction target. Though if it doesn’t, which most leading economists agree it will not, further funding or even a Plan B are low on the list of the new government’s priorities.

As well as repealing the carbon price (hence hurling Australia back into the abyss of time, as opposed to the more than 40 countries, states and provinces who have moved into the modern times with a carbon price), in equally grim news, the bills will also strip $435 million in funding from the Australian Renewable Energy Agency and remove $10 billion of investment in clean energy. This comes amongst uncertainty around Australia’s 2020 targets, with a lack of clarity on whether the new policy regime will meet 5% and a review of a review of a possible review to take place in 2015 as to any further commitments.

In an extra outrageous statement the Prime Minister Tony Abbott opened the new parliament with the bold claim to the Australian people that “as far as the government is concerned, the adults are back in charge.”  All of this earns Australia today’s first place Fossil of the Day award.

For the people who might not know this country, let’s us describe it a bit. This country has increased its carbon emissions 124% from 1990 levels. In the past few years, this country is recording the largest relative increase in annual carbon emissions. If you still don’t know what country this is, here is an other clue: this country is the 4th biggest coal investor in the world. If you still cannot figure it out, this is an Annex 1 country without any pledges. Also, this country has recently issued an exemption to all state owned electricity production companies on all environmental permits and legally binding environmental investments until 2021.

38% of this country’s electricity production comes from state owned plants. Have you guessed yet? Today’s second place Fossil goes to Turkey.

It seems that previous fossils were not enough for Turkey to take its responsibility so we're hearing rumours like the country has closed down their Interministrial Climate Change Coordination Council as well as they dismantling other institutions that have to work on climate change. But the last thing we saw from participant list was unbelievable. Turkey didn't bring one single person from the Ministry of Environment, even from Climate Change Department. We don't want to believe that Turkey came to UNFCCC for a tour of Warsaw’s sights. We also don't want to believe that Turkey is here with Ministry of Energy to participate to Coal & Climate Summit. We're giving this fossil to Turkey for their love of coal and dismantling climate policies and institutions but we also want you to know that you still have a chance to be loved. Now be responsible and take your pledge!

What is worse than appalling action on climate change? Having an appalling record on climate change AND congratulating others for their appalling climate policies. With Australia taking steps to dismantle its climate protection program and its carbon price, the Canadian government jumped at the opportunity to take Question Period talking points to the international stage. Canada’s rejection of carbon pricing in favour of an ineffective regulatory approach has been demonstrated to be the wrong way to actually get emissions down – with the government’s own estimate putting their projected 2020 emissions 20% above their Copenhagen target. We shake our heads in disbelief that a government publicly congratulates others on moving backward and dodging their responsibility on climate change while people are dying from climate impacts. That’s why we award Canada the Fossil of Disbelief today.

HFCs: Finally Phasing Out One Man-Made Problem?

 

ECO was pleased to wake up Sunday to the news that Presidents Obama and Xi had agreed to work together to combat climate change by phasing down the super greenhouse gases, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), under the Montreal Protocol. An agreement under Montreal could prevent emissions of 100 billion tonnes CO2e by 2050. First that great party on Saturday, and then this?!

For a while now, the EU has been busy pushing a COP decision at Warsaw that will urge Parties to begin this exact same process under the Montreal Protocol, and they are clearly excited to have China and the US in agreement. As Connie Hedegaard tweeted Saturday, “Welcome on board!” All eyes are now on the next intersessional meeting of the Montreal Protocol happening in a few weeks, hoping it will turn this political arrangement into concrete, short-term action, which must not stop at phasing down, but start phasing out with appropriate finance and technology support to developing countries.

HFCs are human-manufactured chemicals, primarily used in refrigeration, air conditioning and foam blowing, which were commercialised to replace the high-Global Warming Potential, ozone depleting, human manufactured chemicals phased out by the Montreal Protocol over the past 25 years. Yet, HFCs are also extremely harmful to the climate, with global warming potentials much higher than carbon dioxide. Fortunately, commercially available, climate friendly natural alternatives exist for most of their uses, and developed countries should ensure that these are provided to developing countries at an affordable cost to enable them to take a faster phase in.

Under the Montreal Protocol, all 197 Parties have accepted firm reduction commitments. These commitments are based on the legal principle of common but differentiated responsibilities that incorporates a grace period for developing countries and financial and technology transfer support. This allows them to implement mandated phase-out schedules after developed countries, in recognition of developed countries’ larger historical contribution to ozone depletion and developing countries’ right to continued growth and development. In addition, the Montreal Protocol has financially supported the phase-out of ozone depleting substances in developing countries through developed country contributions administered by the Multilateral Fund (MLF).

On Monday, the EU held a side event to discuss how to deliver progress on HFCs in practical terms. A far cry from some of the more theoretical debates happening elsewhere, this took a packed room through a demonstration of what the Montreal Protocol has achieved in terms of climate mitigation and technology transfer. A whopping 220 Gt CO2e have been avoided since the early 1990s alone, with the $3 billion channelled through the MLF. The message came across loud and clear: if you’re looking for bang for your buck, look no further than the Montreal Protocol. This led more than one participant to ask why we’re not using the tried and tested mechanisms already in place to get rid of these super greenhouse gases.

ECO wonders the same thing, and hopes Parties will stop their politics and get to work. ECO also calls upon developed countries to ensure that support is provided to financial and technology transfer to ensure these technologies are available at affordable costs to developing countries, and encourages a faster phase out to better technologies.

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Climate action takes on split personality ahead of first UN talks of 2013

With this year’s first session of the UN climate negotiations to open on Monday, international politics surrounding the planetary climate crisis were taking on a split personality, according to NGO experts speaking at a press briefing today by Climate Action Network-International and the Global Call for Climate Action. 

According to Alden Meyer, Union of Concerned Scientists' director of strategy and policy, on the one hand, there are some signs of progress on climate action.
 
More developing countries appear keen to adopt low carbon development plans, renewable energy costs continue to decline, and the US and China just launched a process to develop a set of joint actions that “set the kind of powerful example that can inspire the world."
 
In addition, several key high-profile political actors, such as IMF chief Christine Lagarde and World Bank president Jim Yong Kim, are calling for increased action on climate change.
 
But on the other hand, there are several signs that the world is not coming to grips with the severity of the situation, Meyer said, such as continuation of some US$1 trillion a year in fossil fuel subsidies, increasing efforts to develop unconventional oil reserves and expand coal exports, and the growing gap documented by UNEP between the reductions in emissions required by 2020 in order to keep global temperature increases below 2 degrees Centigrade, and the much higher level expected as a result of current national pledges of action. 
 
"To top it off, we aren’t seeing the bold leadership needed by our political leaders to deal with the climate crisis, particularly those from developed countries,” Meyer said.  “This must change – and soon – if we are to get the much more ambitious set of international and national actions that are required to avoid the worst impacts of climate change.” 
Hope in the face of the climate threat was coming increasingly from developing countries. 
 
Lina Li, climate policy researcher from the Greenovation Hub in Beijing, said after some positive domestic developments on the climate front, there was potential for China to do more on the international stage. 
 
"The North-South paradigm that underpinned the international development and environment agenda is posing more questions than answers. Conventional wisdoms are being challenged while new imaginations are yet to be articulated. China’s new role, with the ongoing geographic power shift, will be identified within this context. This is one of the key questions that need to be addressed if we are going to achieve a fair deal in 2015," Lina said. 
 
Meanwhile, this year's major climate negotiations will be held in Poland in November, a country renowned for blocking further climate action in the EU, according to Julia Michalak, climate policy officer for Climate Action Network, Europe. 
 
"It’s difficult for the country that keeps looking back-ward to move the international process forward. Poland keeps mentioning its past achievement and has no vision on how to design its own climate policy, so it’s difficult to imagine it can offer a lot to international process."
 
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